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DE REPUBLICA ANGLORUM by Thomas Smith ( 1513 - 1577 )

 
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 28, 2017 10:53 pm    Post subject: DE REPUBLICA ANGLORUM by Thomas Smith ( 1513 - 1577 ) Reply with quote

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Smith_(diplomat)



Sir Thomas Smith (23 December 1513 – 12 August 1577) was an English scholar, parliamentarian and diplomat

[ AND HIS BOOK DE REPUBLICA ANGLORUM ( 1583 ) WHILST NOT THE FIRST BOOK ON REPUBLICANISM WRITTEN IN ENGLISH WAS VERY INFLUENTIAL IN THE TRIAL OF CHARLES I I 1649 : THIS IS THE BOOK WHICH LED TO THE WORD " COMMONWEALTH " BEING WELL KNOWN AND ADOPTED IN ENGLAND. HE WAS PROMINENT AT THE COURT OF EDWARD VI WHERE HE KNEW THE FOUNDING FATHER OF REPUBLICANISM IN WALES : WILLIAM THOMAS - THE FIRST TRANSLATOR OF MACHIAVELLI - WAS THE YOUNG KING'S TUTOR. THE FOUNDING FATHER OF REPUBLICANISM IN ENGLAND WAS ARGUABLY THOMAS MORE WHO CONTRIBUTED TO THE ARGUMENTS WHICH DECLARED ENGLAND TO BE A SEPARATE EMPIRE AND THEREFORE A REPUBLIC / COMMONWEALTH WHICH WAS NOT SUBJECT TO THE PAPACY WHOSE CLAIM TO AUTHORITY CITED THE ROMAN EMPIRE.]

... Sir Thomas was an early convert to Protestantism, which brought him into prominence when Edward VI came to the throne being appointed Secretary of State. During the protectorate of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, he entered public life and was made the Secretary of State, and was sent on an important diplomatic mission to Brussels. In 1548 he was knighted. On the accession of Queen Mary I he lost all his offices, but in the reign of her sister, Elizabeth I, was prominently employed in public affairs. ...

... In 1571, Elizabeth I, a great believer in colonization, granted Smith 360,000 acres (150,000 ha) of East Ulster. The empty lands were to be used to plant English settlers in an effort to control areas claimed by Clandeboye O’Neill territory and thus control the native Irish. The grant included all of the area known today as North Down and the Ards, apart from the southern tip of the Peninsula which was controlled by the Anglo-Norman Savage family. ... Unfortunately for Smith, the booklet he printed to advertise his new lands was read by the Clandeboye O'Neill chief, Sir Brian MacPhelim, who just a few years earlier had been knighted by Elizabeth. Furious at what he saw as her 'duplicity' in secretly arranging for the colonization of unsettled areas claimed by O'Neill, he burned down all the major buildings in the area. The owners objected, but could do nothing. This made it difficult for the plantation to take hold. Then launching a wave of attacks on these early English settlers when they arrived, the O'Neills scorched the land Smith was to develop, burning abbeys, monasteries and churches, and leaving Clandeboye "totally waste and void of inhabitants" ...

[ SO : NOTE THE PARADOX - THAT THE NORTHERN IRELAND SITUATION WAS CREATED BY 16C REPUBLICANS IN ENGLAND YET IT WAS AND IS STILL OPPOSED BY 16C - 21C REPUBLICANS IN IRELAND ]

... Sir Thomas Smith's book De Republica Anglorum: the Maner of Gouernement or Policie of the Realme of England,[12] written between 1562 and 1565, was first published in 1583. In it, he described England as a mixed government and a commonwealth, and stated that all commonwealths are of mixed character. ... [ AND NOTE ALSO ] ... Smith also authored De recta & emendata lingvæ Anglicæ scriptione, dialogus (Correct and Improved English Writing, a Dialogue, 1568) ... [ THE 16C REPUBLICANS IN EUROPE WERE VERY CONSCIOUS OF TRYING TO RE-CREATE THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGES TO BE RE-STRUCTURED LIKE THE CLASSICAL LATIN AND GREEK OF THE ANCIENT SCHOLARS : THIS FASHION STARTED IN CATHOLIC ITALY AND RESULTED IN NORTHERN EUROPE IN GETTING RID OF THE OLD GERMANIC GOTHIC TYPE FACES TO USE MORE LEGIBLE TYPE FACES LIKE " ROMAN " WITH LOWER CASE LETTERS DERIVED FROM LOCAL HANDWRITING STYLES - AND IN NORTHERN PROTESTANT EUROPE THIS WAS LINKED TO GETTING RID OF LATIN TEXTS IN FAVOUR OF THE BIBLE IN NATIVE TONGUES WHICH RESULTED IN THE PREVIOUSLY MARGINALISED WELSH BEING SAVED ... BY AN ESSENTIALLY REPUBLICAN SCHOLASTIC IDEAL ]

ONLINE FACSIMILE EDITION - http://dcc.newberry.org/items/de-republica-anglorum-the-maner-of-government-or-policie-of-the-realme-of-england



http://www.constitution.org/eng/repang.htm

{ INTRODUCTION / TABLE OF CONTENTS }

[PREFACE TO THE 1583 EDITION]

TO THE READER

To conceale the graces inspired by God, or the giftes ingraffed by nature, or the vertues atchived unto ourselves by industrie, in all ages and of all wise men was accounted unduetifulnesse, unkindnesse and impietie unto that commonwealth, in the which, and unto the which we are both bred and borne: but to suppresse the worthie works of any author, may justly be judged not only injurie to the person, but even envie at the whole world. Wherefore chauncing upon this short discourse compiled by the honorable knight sir Thomas Smyth, and considering that the same could not but be a great light unto the ignorant, and no lesse delight unto the learned in the lawes and policie of sundrie regiments: I thought it part of my dutie, aswel for reviving of the fame of so notable a man, as for the publike imparting of so pythie a treatise, to present the same unto thy indifferent and discreete judgement. Wherein although the errors and rashnes of Scribes, appearing in the contrarietie and corruption of coppies, happening both by the length of time sithens the first making, as also by the often transcripting might justly have been mine excuse or rather discourage: yet weying the authoritie of the author togither with the gravitie of the matter, I made no doubt but that the reverence due unto the one, and the recompence deserved by the other would easily countervail all faults committed by a clarke & writer. And whereas some termes or other matters may seme to dissent from the usual phrase of the common lawes of this realme: notwithstanding to him that will consider that the profession of the maker was principally in the civil lawes, and therefore not to be expected as one excellent in both, and also that the finishing of this worke was in Fraunce farre from his librarie, and in an ambassad even in the midst of waightie affaires, it cannot nor ought not without great ingratitude be displesant or in any sort disliking. Wherefore (gentle Reader) accept in good part my zeale and this honorable mans travaile: assuring thy self that the same framed by an expert workemaister, and forged of pure and excellent mettall, will not faile in prooving to be a right commodious instrument. Vale.

-----------------------------

DE REPUBLICA ANGLORUM

THE MANER OF GOVERNEMENT
OR POLICIE OF THE REALME OF ENGLANDE.

Chap. 1. OF THE DIVERSITIES OF COMMON WEALTHES OR GOVERNEMENT.


They that have written heretofore of Common wealthes, have brought them into three most simple kindes or fashions of governement. Where one alone doth governe, called of the Greekes Monarcia, where the smaller number, commonly called of them Aristokratia, and the thirde where the multitude doth rule Dhmokratia. To rule, is understoode to have the supreme and highest authoritie of commaundement. That part or member of the common wealth is saide to rule which doth controwle, correct, all other members of the common wealth. That part which doth rule, define and commaund according to the forme of the governement, is taken in everie common wealth to be just and lawe : As a rule is alway to be understoode to be straight, and to which all workes be to be conformed, and by it to be judged : I doe not meane the Lesbians rule which is conformed to the stone: but the right rule whereby the Artificer and Architect doe judge the straightnesse of everie worke mans worke, he to be reckoned to make his worke straightest who goeth neerest to the straightnesse of yt.

Chap. 2 - WHAT IS JUST OR LAWE IN EVERIE COMMON WEALTH OR GOVERNEMENT

Nowe it doth appeare, that it is profitable to everie common wealth (as it is to every thing generally and particularly) to be kept in her most perfect estate. Then if that part which doth beare the rule, doe commaund that which is profitable to it, and the commaundement of that part which doeth rule on that sort, is to be accepted in every common wealth respectively to be just (as we have said before): it must needes follow, that the definition which Thrasimachus did make, that is just which is the profite of the ruling and most strong part (if it be meant of the Citie or common wealth) is not so farre out of the way, (if it be civillie understanded) as Plato would make it. But as there is profitable and appearaunce of profite, so there is juste and right and appearaunce of right. And as well may the ruling part commaund that which is not his profite, as the just man may for his just and true meaninge who would amend that which is amisse, and helpe the common wealth, and doe profit unto it. For in asmuch as he attempteth to doe contrarie to the Lawe which is alreadie put, he be by the lawe justly condemned. If he be to be accompted justly condemned who is condemned for doing contrarie to the lawe and the ordinance of that part which doth commaunde.

Chap. 5 - OF THE QUESTION WHAT IS RIGHT AND JUST IN EVERIE COMMON WEALTH.

So when the common wealth is evill governed by an evill ruler and unjust (as in the three last named which be rather sickenesse of a politique bodie than perfect and good estates) if the lawes be made, as most like they be alwayes to maintaine that estate: the question remaineth whether the obedience of them be just, and the disobedience wrong : the profit and conservation of that estate right and justice, or the dissolution : and whether a good and upright man, and lover of his countrie ought to maintaine and obey them, or to seeke by all meanes to dissolve and abolish them. Great and hautie courages hathe taken one parte and this made Dion to rise against Dionysius, and Thrasibulus against the XXX. tyrantes, Brutus and Cassius against Caesar, and hath bin cause of many commotions in common wealthes, whereof the judgement of the common people is according to the event and successe: of them which be learned, according to the purpose of the doers, and the estate of the time then present. Certaine it is that it is alwayes a doubtfull and hasardous matter to meddle with the chaunging of the lawes and governement, or to disobey the orders of the rule or government, which a man doth finde alreadie established.
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