Y Repwblic
Conversations with Wales' Republicans : Poblachiaethwyr - Repwbligwyr - Gweriniaethwyr

Fascism and Republicanism

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Y Repwblic Forum Index -> Damcanol - Theoretical
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Mon Sep 26, 2011 10:20 pm    Post subject: Fascism and Republicanism Reply with quote

Knowing full well that it is a quagmire of mangled contradictions I've never found the energy yet to comment here on Fascism much ... the fact that Fascism draws upon Republicanism should be self-evident but it clearly isn't to most people. To me the root of Fascism lies in ancient Greek political philosophies which advocated a republicanism based upon ' the rule of the best ' i.e. ' aristo-cracy.' If you can scrub your mind clean of the images of jackboots and death camps and try to think straight about it then Fascist political theory has some interesting things to say that we ought to pay attention to, if only to argue against.

The fact is that whilst Mussolini spouted about Fascist theory he was not a practitioner of it, and Hitler did not even bother to spout about it [ OK slightly exagerated there, but polemically true-ish]. Franco and all those other later dictators in the hispano-sphere tended to concentrate upon making their countries safe for capitalism and as such in a way conformed more to what Fascist theory advocates than to those more famous despots. So what is the gist of Fascist political theory ? In essence it is feudalism updated through mercantilism into corporationism, and as far as I am concerned it is the dominant political ideology of the western world, increasingly the whole world, and if you want some evidence for that opinion consider this recent development in UK politics :

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15034526

In my political model the Liberal Democrats are equally as ' right wing ' as the Conservatives i.e. equally off-centre and in this three dimensional model of mine they are cheek by jowl with Fascism so it comes as no surprise to learn that their big new idea is a corporatist one. The antagonist of Fascism in my model is Socialism, pitching the assertion of inequality against the asssertion of equality. Again, if you can scrub your mind clean of historical events labelled ' Fascism ' and calmly think through the implications of Fascist political theory you might find something of value. After all, the Nazis did not have a monopoly over racism and genocide e.g. the USA is arguably the natural home of those, concentration camps were invented by the British and the French invented the gas chamber extermination programme etc. If you can lay aside your prejudices a moment, it should be obvious that that basic assertion of Fascist theory that people are not equal is a sensible one to make.

If you can get away from individualism, of arguing that everybody should be equally respected as an individual, and think instead about the wellfare not of individuals but whole societies, then the differing abilities of people is a positive asset and of great importance. It is the old ' Who do you want to operate on you in an emergency ? ' argument. You do not go to the bus stop and ask the people standing there for their opinions, you go to hospital and submit to the expertise of those trained to do the job. Yes, you will feel gratitude towards them as individuals for saving your life - but really what you should be grateful for is the society that created the National Health Service. This is the kind of society that Fascist political theory envisages, and it is clearly a vision drawn from Republicanism : this is the Enlightenment ideal of progress through technological innovation, through political organisation to reap in politics the benefits of the industrial organisation in modern industry. Its political heros are technocrats : engineers, doctors, scientists, economists etc who are going to organise society for the greatest benefit that can be contrived for the greatest number. It is a futurist dream of a happy, healthy, enlightened world order ... in this positive peaceful mode, you might identify the United Nations with the politics of Fascism as originally conceived ... so how on earth did it all go so wrong ?

Well to begin with, it is obvious that in terms of marketing an image big business likes to pose as benefitting society in the way that Fascist political theory advocates, except that in Fascist political theory a person who has some particular talent has as a consequence a duty to society to excercise it for the general benefit. Big Business warped this into the argument that such talent is an opportunity to profit, and that somehow any or all activities directed towards profit benefit society. Unsurprisingly, in most places that became industrialised, capitalist enterprises were ruining societies and were strongly opposed by people who agreed upon getting rid of them but not agreed upon how. Initially, Fascists were in the oppositional group but of course political theory is in all cases typically less than skin deep. Facing the probability of the expropriation of their assets, and the possibility of violent revolution, Big Business found a bunch of revolutionaries that they could buy - the Fascists in Italy, the Nazis in Germany. It did not matter that Mussolini and Hitler were politically incompetant, or so they thought, it did matter that they could organise effective violent suppression of other political organisations that were critical of Big Business. Once helped into power, the Fascists and Nazis had no need of political theory because they did not have to argue with anyone, they simply killed their political opponents. Thus much of the incoherent nonsense spouted during the period is self contradictory and yet is cited as ' Fascist ' because nobody has a clear sense of what Fascism was before all of the murder and mayhem attached to the modern connotations of the word were committed.

Now it is my contention that it is because we don't have a clear sense of what Fascist ideology is we are unable to recognise that the ideology that triumphed in World War Two and grew apace in political influence afterwards is in fact Fascism, only it doesn't admit to that appellation. It has mostly manifested itself in a bewildering array of parasitic attachments to governments, some of which have been less resistant than others to the erosion of the power of the state and thus our ability to excercise democratic control over many of our societies is now declining apace. The cause of this decline in state power when superficially the scope of the power of the state is increasing is due to a widespread acceptance of the ideas that private corporations are more competant than public ones and indeed cheaper, both of which is demonstrably untrue. What is happening politically is that governments i.e. politicians are on the one hand claiming that they are managing the purchasing of services and on the other are disclaiming any responsibility for the quality of those services. Instead of being responsible to the electorate as tax payers, the politicians are now responsible to the corporations for collecting taxes on their behalf, the state in effect is no longer a public entity in which the citizens freely participate but instead a private entity in which the citizens are forced to participate. Indeed, to not do the work specified by the corporations, to not buy the goods specified by the corporations, to not pay the taxes specified by the corporations, will probably result in your imprisonment. If we could get away from the prevailent popular ideas associated with Fascism of jack boots and concentration camps, we might just get this form of politics, that has taken over the democracies that fought the Nazis, clearly into focus and name it properly - and note that it is still a perversion of the Fascist ideal.


Last edited by dai on Tue Sep 27, 2011 12:23 pm; edited 2 times in total
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Tue Sep 27, 2011 12:30 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I guess that I ought to mention that what prompted me to write the above was browsing the following - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism - it seems to me to just list a long stream of events and incidental ideas that are associated with Fascism by others without trying to make sense of it as a coherent political theory. Mind you, I doubt that I could do that either.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definitions_of_fascism

Most of the definitions recounted in the above seem to me to be projected fantasies - even Mussolini's ! - Kevin Passmore's seems reasonable but doesn't I think capture the internal logic of Fascism that I sense within it. My own projections upon Fascism are more akin to Roosevelt's - " The first truth is that the liberty of a democracy is not safe if the people tolerate the growth of private power to a point where it becomes stronger than their democratic state itself. That, in its essence, is fascism — ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power." - This of course can be achieved by persuading politicians to hand over the power of the state to private corporations. I have a lot of sympathy with the Marxist definition supplied in this article, that without the help of the ruling class and / or Big Business then street fighting thugs are not going to come to power and that once put into power they are dependent upon their benefactors i.e. this implies that the apparent rulers are in fact puppets, they only have to entrance and entertain rather than do any political thinking. Perhaps this is why Fascism cannot be deduced from statements made by Mussolini or Hitler or Franco, they are not political philosophers but ... what ? This page below delves more into the supposed ideological roots of Fascism but it still fails to articulate a sense of what Fascism is, rather it presents this political ideology as a sort of stew cooked up from other ideologies. To understand that no ideology comes about as the result of an intellectual excercise, that intellectuals merely articulate the sentiments that they discern around them, is to see that any ideology exists in potentiality and will be renewed periodically in different guises in given circumstances.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism_and_ideology
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Tue Sep 27, 2011 1:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Since I am identifying Corporatism / Corporativism with Fascism as its characteristic political organisation I decided to have a browse over that subject and I suppose that I am not surprised by what I find ...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporatism

... the history of corporativism as represented here more or less confirms the prejudices that I am comfortable with. Interesting to see that Durkheim was a contributor to the discourse, and - as conforms with my own 3-D model - not surprising to see how allied Conservativism and Liberalism are to Fascism through Corporativism. Disturbing to see how close the Fascist conception of Corporativism is to the Republican ideal of reconciling the antagonistic elements in society :

" When brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognizes the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonized in the unity of the State." The Doctrine of Fascism - Mussolini

Except that Republicanism doesn't plan to do it by violent coercion. The passage on modern Russia is food for thought upon the subject of where the whole global political system may be going as aggressive oligarchs expand their influence and seek to control the world's economy. I'm more used to worrying about the influence of the UK's and USA's corporations -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporacracy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_nationalism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_statism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_capitalism

Perhaps Wales is too impoverished to really be of any interest for exploitation ... lets hope so - but we have that corollary of corporativism, quangoism : the attempt to create corporate entities to remedy the faults in our stagnant society.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quango
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Wed Sep 28, 2011 9:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

As if on cue, the BBC broadcast this programme and put up a web page about it :

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15083475

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0151pys

This Mathew Goodwin reckons that the ' far right ' are electable if they can get their act together, especially if they can disconnect themselves from associations with Fascism. Now my own view is that the ' far right ' has only one connection with Fascism, or rather Nazism, and that is to the imagery of it, that they like to have a good time, vent their prejudices, and enjoy scaring the heebie-jeebies out of the do-gooders who profess a pretentious middle class socialism of the tut-tutting kind. It should be rather obvious that you do not need to have a political theory to enjoy that, and most of those that I have met who have expressed ' far right ' views are more of the belt and braces sort - " I know what's right and wrong, don't you try to go all politically clever on me ! " I even get accused of socialism ... but I'm much more complicated than that, and I do not see much in the way of Fascist political theory in the mouths of Nick Griffin and Co. So maybe it is time to browse a bit upon Neo-Fascism to see if there are any groups out there who have adopted more than the swastika, who have some real Fascist ideologies.

I suppose I have to look at the BNP and Nick Griffin first, perhaps Wikipedia is objective about him perhaps not ...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nick_Griffin
http://twitter.com/#!/nickgriffinmep
http://www.nickgriffinmep.eu/content/speeches-videos - he has an admirable spanish accent in the first video
http://www.facebook.com/OfficialNickGriffin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_National_Party
http://www.facebook.com/OfficialBritishNationalParty?v=wall
http://www.bnp.org.uk/

and since I'm not going to spend a lot of time on it, you'll note that whilst they have policies they have little in the way of politics, I'm just going to stick to those two subjects and see what one of their opponents say

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerry_Gable
http://www.searchlightmagazine.com/
http://www.stopthebnp.com/

Searchlight isn't as bad as some in abusing the word Fascist, but it is an abuse that is just too common and confuses the issues that are really at stake : that the UK's political system licences the sorts of practices and tactics that groups like the BNP and its fellow travellers use, its just that the other political parties and their associates are held to be more respectable. Go into the history of the main political parties and each of them have played the same sorts of cards as the BNP in the past, so perhaps all that has happened is that they have stopped doing it and left that particular constituency to the BNP because there are now fewer votes in it e.g. when Thatcher realised that there were votes to be got in these issues, she shifted the Conservatives' rhetoric in that direction to mop up those votes with empty promises. Labour have also considered how to pursue the same strategy, even Plaid Cymru have done it.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascist_(epithet)
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Thu Sep 29, 2011 8:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://catholicknight.blogspot.com/2009/03/fascism-returns-to-europe.html

I fell about laughing at this, because it is so deliciously barmy in the light of the facts : Catholicism and Fascism have a strong correlation geographically. I googled ' Catholicism ' and ' Fascism ' to see what turned up, but take note that I do not believe that it is as simple as something like ' Catholicism - Morality = Fascism ' : but I do believe in the correlation most probably arising out of cultural factors that Catholicism reflected and refracted back into the societies it was in. Protestant and Orthodox Christianity are not excused on the grounds of being less preoccupied with anti-semitism, but the forms of Fascism that arose elsewhere were less potent. France, Ireland and Poland provide food for thought as catholic countries where Fascism didn't become a mass movement and I think that it is notable that in the years preceding the rise of Fascism the Papal influence was weak in those countries even whilst Catholic faith was strong. It was the Papacy which sponsored attempts to reconcile Catholicism with industrialising societies by its intellectual sympathisers which produced the idea of Corporatism which is basically a rehash of the ideas that the medieval church had derived from scholasticism and classicism, that there should be a balance of the three powers : the monarchy, the aristocracy and those whose faces they ground into the dirt with the sanction of the church. The Papacy was disseminating the idea of Corporatism for some 50 - 60 years before the rise of Fascism and it was thus an established way of thinking in many societies. With all of the basic ideological elements already potent within these socities, all it needed was a secular counterpart to the Papacy and its organisation to try to put these ideas into practice. Infallible Popes = Mussolini and Hitler ? Inquisition = OVRA and Gestapo ? Jesuits = AGF and Hitler Youth etc. etc. The question arises of course as to whether the Catholic and other churches really cared that their political ethics were being pursued without their religious morality attached to them, and I think that the answer is apparently not save for a very few brave believers whose disappearance and deaths were passed over in silence by their churches leaders. It has taken the Catholic church a very long time to own up to the possibility that it cultivated anti-semitism and even now it is still very slow in putting its house in order.

This is one very good reason therefore not to dismiss the importance of religion but to consider it as the counterpart of politics as Republicanism always used to debate it. What hope for rational, reasonable, just politics if the state licences the poisoning of tender minds by deluded obsessives at the earliest possible opportunity, and in Wales even sponsors it with public money being given to faith schools. There is a role for free thought but there is also a role for a civic religion, and I think that as adults we should examine how and where we get our ideas from and should promote free thought through our educational system provided that the religion taught in schools is one of critical reflection not blind obedience to any authority - religious or political. Other people have debated this connection between Catholicism and Fascism, and Religion and Politics in general.

http://www.newyouth.com/archives/historicalanalysis/catholicism_and_fascism.html

http://www.iiipublishing.com/blog/2006/12/blog_12_12_2006.html

http://iiipublishing.blogspot.com/2007/06/italy-catholicism-and-fascism-today.html

Apart from the bloggers with a chip on their shoulder, it is a respectable subject of academic inquiry :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clerical_fascism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo-fascism_and_religion

... and the subject must arise of course of how Islam stripped the Republican ideal of its moral safeguards to produce ' Islamic Fascism ' whose debators have been accused of Islamophobia and Christofascism :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamofascism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christofascism
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Sat Oct 01, 2011 8:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Commenting above on how countries where the Papacy was less strong seem to have been less strong, I've been pondering exactly whether Pilsudsky could be labelled Fascist. I think not, OK he did commit a coup but he does not appear to have instituted a corporatist regime even though Poland was struggling to resurrect itself. He deliberately argued citizenship against culturally conformity and protected religious and ethnic minorities, and moved from socialist politics towards a more republican position after he had achieved independance for Poland. Arguably a white republican who turned black during periods of struggle and public danger.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_Coup_(Poland)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Polish_Republic
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3zef_Pi%C5%82sudski
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Citystate



Joined: 25 Sep 2007
Posts: 41
Location: "... the land of Cokaygne"

PostPosted: Thu Oct 06, 2011 11:14 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

dai wrote:
France, Ireland and Poland provide food for thought as catholic countries where Fascism didn't become a mass movement


Surely you must know of Eoin O'Duffy's BLUESHIRTS, described by some as the main opposition, his National Corprorate Party and the participation by Irish fascists on Franco's side in the Spanish civil war.

France's contribution to the history of fascist is well known obviously.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 10:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dear City State,

yes, I know about O'Duffy etc, there were Fascist movements everywhere, but I was explicitly considering Catholic countries in which these Fascist movements did not become mainstream and take control of the government. Pilsudski gave me cause to stop and think, but he does not fit the bill but was rather unusual. I probably ought to sit down and give him a topic thread to himself, because I tend to see him as having realised the threat to the re-nascent and unsteady republic of Poland and I deeply sympathise with the impulse to want to step in where egotists are subverting their country's interests for their own personal ends and knock heads together

I admit that my writing is not of your high academic standard, but then I'm not trying to compete at that high brow level but rather just raise the game a bit to ... let's say a lower middle brow level ... rather than leave the inter-web image of Welsh Republicanism to websites that pronounce themselves to be republican but lack any political analysis at all.

I'm happy to admit that I'd like to be doing better than this, but this site is supposed to be about conversation rather than authoratative pronouncements - hence I am very appreciative of your criticism. You might like to add a bit to your criticism by considering the motives for the Blueshirts fighting in Spain : pro-fascism ? anti-communism ? catholic solidarity after so many atrocities on the clergy ? I suspect that the reasons might well be more to do with the same reasons that so many volunteered for the republic's International Brigades : gut sentiments and a desire for adventure ?
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Mon Oct 17, 2011 10:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Since City State has brought the subject up, I'm going to look for some links about O'Duffy and the Blueshirts

Unprepossing O'Duffy himself in a little film clip - http://www.britishpathe.com/record.php?id=18443

Early Irish Fashionists - http://www.britishpathe.com/record.php?id=21611

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eoin_O%27Duffy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blueshirts
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Corporate_Party
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Brigade_(Spanish_Civil_War)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenshirts_(National_Corporate_Party)
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Citystate



Joined: 25 Sep 2007
Posts: 41
Location: "... the land of Cokaygne"

PostPosted: Tue Oct 18, 2011 8:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

dai wrote:
I'm not trying to compete at that high brow level but rather just raise the game a bit to ... let's say a lower middle brow level ... rather than leave the inter-web image of Welsh Republicanism to websites that pronounce themselves to be republican but lack any political analysis at all.


Alas, all too noble!! Encouraging the minnows of the Welsh radical fringe to think politics analytically must be akin to trying to piss upstream. As for the 'image' of Welsh republicanism, it is what it is. Who's watching? Nobody is standing by waiting to dish out academic marks, so chill out Daddy-o!

dai wrote:
I was explicitly considering Catholic countries in which these Fascist movements did not become mainstream and take control of the government...


You must be aware of Petain and the Vichy regime in France from 1940-1944 which had all of the characteristic fascist traits.

Fascism was hugely popular in France. In Germany, the Nazi Party boasted only 880k members when it came to power. By contrast, according to Robert Soucy, in 'French Fascism: The Second Wave', the members of the Croix De Feux numbered over 1.2 million. A mass movement by anyone's standards!

http://www.amazon.co.uk/French-Fascism-Second-Wave-1933-1939/dp/0300070438/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1318967936&sr=8-1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Wed Oct 19, 2011 1:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I do not think that the Vichy regime was Fascist, but it did collaborate in order to survive. It did things like arrest jews, communists etc but it also arrested French fascists who tried to use the German occupation as an opportunity to overthrow the government, and amazingly it also arrested and tried German agents that were helping them to do this.

In order to be Fascist, Petain's government would have to be more than just anti-Jewish, anti-Communist etc - it would need to implement some kind of Fascist system of government. It didn't, but it did do similar things to what the United Kingdom did in the course of the war, reorganising according to the circumstances but not undoing that new organaisation after the war. Thus in fighting the Axis powers, the UK and France both took on a sort of corporate structure to direct industrial activity that after the war enabled nationalisation to take place without much comment. It is a moot point as to whether the nationalisation of industries across Western Europe after World War Two amounted to Corporatism, that whilst Hitler and Mussolini lost the war Fascism, de facto, won it.

Compare Petain's government with Quisling's in Norway : Petain was voted in by an elected government to try to make the best of a bad job, Quisling was installed by the German occupiers. Petain was a patriot in difficult circumstances excercising political skill, Quisling was a traitor in easy circumstances and yet was so incompetent the Germans couldn't trust him to be other than a dummy dressed in a uniform. However Quisling was a Fascist to such an extent that he was one of the few people who actually argued the toss with Hitler, albeit impotently, because he really believed in it - more than Hitler !
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Wed Oct 19, 2011 2:19 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

In order to disentangle the idea of Fascism from jack boots and death camps, consider whether or not the Social Credit idea was Fascist - it was moderately successful as a sort of third party movement throughout the English speaking world, specifically in the Commonwealth countries ( and remember that the word ' commonwealth ' is, or rather was, a synonym for ' republic.' ) Social Credit politics does in fact have more than a whiff of anti-Jewish, anti-Communist sentiment around in it and it is definitely right wing whilst rejecting Conservative and Liberal politics, in which case in my model it should be identifiable as Fascist. It is sufficiently moderate to stay within the bounds of being a Democratic-Republican political theory, it even has elements of Republican-Democracy in it such as an antagonism for political parties, but it has one very definitely Fascist-Republican trait within it : politicians are to do what the experts tell them to do and are not to meddle in technicalities that they do not understand.

In the present financial crisis, CH Douglas' idea begins to look relevant again, it is a sort of right wing Keynesianism but the original economic theory behind it is doubtful : maybe somebody will update it / mystify it some more ?

http://bleedingindebt.com/
http://michaeljournal.org/noparty.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Credit
http://www.alor.org/Library1.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._H._Douglas
http://douglassocialcredit.com/
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Sun Dec 11, 2011 11:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

A recent BBC article addresses the point about technocracy which links in with the argument about Fascism and illustrates the risks of not having a democratic check to balance the rule of the experts, it cites the Cherwell v Tizard argument in world war two where Cherwell's crack brained arguments triumphed and resulted in Churchill authorising the carpet bombing of German cities that has been cited as a war crime ( but then he probably had a devastating reprisal in mind ) - and that tends to bear out my contention that the Fascists won WW2, that political control of the UK was passed to the corporations and banks because of the measures taken to defeat the Nazis, who themselves actually failed to live by the political system that they supposedly subscribed to ( in which case they might have won.)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16110088

" In wartime, Churchill - himself exclusively humanities-educated - took the advice of the man closest to him whose views were, as it happened, not shared by other prominent figures within the scientific community.

Today, faced with an international financial crisis, Europe's elected representatives have singled out individuals with economic expertise for a solution. In this case too, significant voices have been raised by economic experts outside government, questioning the wisdom of adopting the measures proposed.

The rule of a few wise men is oligarchy, not democracy. So democracy depends upon our being able to sustain informed debate in the fields of science and economics. Each and every one of us has to take responsibility for the decisions that shape the future of the nation as a whole."

[ Political ignorance there I feel - ' oligarchy ' is the rule of the powerful, whereas strictly speaking that is ' heirarchy ' - the rule of the priests.]
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
Posts: 2636

PostPosted: Wed Oct 18, 2017 6:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Since I wrote the above pieces the possibility that not merely The Further Right but The Far Right and The Farthest Right - not to mention Alt-Right - could be elected were merely matters of curiousity ... Mostly we thought that Fascist would not be a name that the advocates of The Right would think it viable to use and that they would substitute others which their masters would approve of being associated with ... we were wrong ...

https://newrepublic.com/article/144954/return-fascism-germany-greece-far-right-nationalists-winning-elections

The Return of Fascism - by Seyla Benhabib

From Germany to Greece, far-right nationalists are attacking migrants, raiding mosques, and winning elections.

On July 22, 2011, a Norwegian extremist named Anders Behring Breivik shot off an email to more than a thousand people. A self-­identified fascist, Breivik attached a 1,500-page screed attacking Islam, cultural Marxism, feminism, and immigration. Titled “2083: A European Declaration of Independence,” the manifesto demanded the forced deportation of all Muslims from Europe. An hour and a half later, Breivik set off in a Volkswagen van to kill 77 people, first by detonating a fertilizer bomb in Oslo, then by gunning down teenagers at a summer camp on the island of Utoya. It was the bloodiest attack on Norwegian soil since World War II. ... Breivik belonged to a group called the Norwegian Defense League, one of the many openly fascist movements that have cropped up all across Europe over the past decade, from Scandinavia to Germany, where, this past weekend, the far right won a stunning 13 percent of the vote in the German elections, enough to propel it into parliament for the first time in more than 60 years. ... ...

... Photographer Espen Rasmussen has spent almost two years documenting the rise of far-right extremists not just in Germany, but all over Europe, from the Golden Dawn in Greece to neo-Nazis in Ukraine. Some, like the National Front in France and Britain First in the United Kingdom, have entered the political mainstream. Many sit in the EU Parliament, using the funds of an organization whose destruction they seek. And all draw from the memories of Europe’s fascist past, in the period between the two World Wars, seeking answers to Europe’s contemporary problems. By putting the Nazi paraphernalia of these groups so vividly on display, Rasmussen’s photographs force us to confront the reality that there are forces that want Europe to fall apart rather than pull together. It is sobering to realize how far and fast such hatred can travel. ...


Ooops - sorry : most of the rest of the article is photos - Germany, Sweden, Greece, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Ukraine, France, Slovakia, Hungary, Russia - where ' far-right extremists have killed over 600 people in Russia since 2004'
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Y Repwblic Forum Index -> Damcanol - Theoretical All times are GMT
Page 1 of 1

 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


© 2007-2008 Informe.com. Get Free Forum Hosting
Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group
 :: 
PurplePearl_C 1.02 Theme was programmed by DEVPPL JavaScript Forum
Images were made by DEVPPL Flash Games