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Manufacturing Consent : Pseudo-Journalism

 
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dai



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PostPosted: Fri Dec 23, 2016 11:49 pm    Post subject: Manufacturing Consent : Pseudo-Journalism Reply with quote

There has been a debate recently about Putin possibly putting false news into The Media in The USA ... how could anyone know ? ... Also by chance today I came across a reference to this being the fortieth anniversary of the death of Walter Lippmann who was once a famous pundit who coined the term - adopted by others - " Manufacturing Consent."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Lippmann

Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974)[2] was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning, and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books, most notably his 1922 book Public Opinion ... highly praised with titles ranging anywhere from "most influential" journalist of the 20th century, to Father of Modern Journalism. ...

... Public Opinion proposes that the increased power of propaganda and the specialized knowledge required for effective political decisions have rendered the traditional notion of democracy impossible. The phrase "manufacture of consent" was introduced, which the public intellectuals Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman used as the title of their book Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (1988). ...

[ THIS IS MORE OR LESS WHAT THE BBC DOES : A GOOD EXAMPLE OF IT RECENTLY OCCURRED WITH THEIR RE-POSITIONING AFTER BREXIT ]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Opinion_(book)

Public Opinion is a book by Walter Lippmann, published in 1922. It is a critical assessment of functional democratic government, especially of the irrational and often self-serving social perceptions that influence individual behavior and prevent optimal societal cohesion. The detailed descriptions of the cognitive limitations people face in comprehending their sociopolitical and cultural environments leading them to apply an evolving catalogue of general stereotypes to a complex reality, rendered Public Opinion a seminal text in the fields of media studies, political science, and social psychology. ...

... Pseudo-environment - The introduction describes man's inability to interpret the world: "The real environment is altogether too big, too complex, and too fleeting for direct acquaintance" between people and their environment. People construct a pseudo-environment that is a subjective, biased, and necessarily abridged mental image of the world, and to a degree, everyone's pseudo-environment is a fiction. People "live in the same world, but they think and feel in different ones." ... [ WOW : NOW I USED TO KEEP ON EXPLAINING THIS IN ARCHITECTURE ] ... Human behavior is stimulated by the person's pseudo-environment and then is acted upon in the real world. Some of the general implications of the interactions among one's psychology, environment, and the mass communications media are highlighted. ...

... News and truth - The pertinent facts are never provided completely and accurately as a fraction of the whole, they are often arranged to portray a certain, subjective interpretation of an event. Often, those who know the "real" (true) environment construct a favourable, fictitious pseudo-environment in the public mind to suit private needs. Propaganda is inherently impossible without a barrier of censorship between the event and the public. As a consequence, the mass communication media, by their very nature as vehicles for informational transmission, are essentially vulnerable to manipulation. ... The blame for that perceptual parallax falls not upon the mass media technology (print, radio, cinema, television) or logistical concerns but upon certain members of society who attend to life with little intellectual engagement. ...

... Manufacture of consent - When properly deployed in the public interest, the manufacture of consent is useful and necessary for a cohesive society, because, in many cases, "the common interests" of the public are not obvious except upon careful analysis of the collected data, a critical intellectual exercise in which most people are uninterested or are incapable of doing. Therefore, most people must have the world summarized for them by the well-informed, and will then act accordingly. ...

[ POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS : THE GENERAL WILL HAS TO BE ACTIVELY ENGAGED WITH BY INDIVIDUALS IN ORDER TO BE TRANSFORMATIVE ]

... The political élite are members of the class of people who are incapable of accurately understanding, by themselves, the complex "unseen environment" wherein the public affairs of the modern state occur; thus, Lippmann proposes that a professional, "specialized class" collect and analyze data, and present their conclusions to the society's decision makers, who, in their turn, use the "art of persuasion" to inform the public about the decisions and circumstances affecting them. ...
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dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 24, 2016 1:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bernays

Edward Louis James Bernays (/bərˈneɪz/; German: [bɛɐ̯ˈnaɪs]; November 22, 1891 − March 9, 1995) was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as "the father of public relations" ... He felt this manipulation was necessary in society, which he regarded as irrational and dangerous as a result of the "herd instinct" that Trotter had described. Adam Curtis's award-winning 2002 documentary for the BBC, The Century of the Self, pinpoints Bernays as the originator of modern public relations ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Engineering_of_Consent

"The Engineering of Consent" is an essay by Edward Bernays first published in 1947, and a book he published in 1955 ... Bernays explained, "Professionally, [public relations] activities are planned and executed by trained practitioners in accordance with scientific principles, based on the findings of social scientists. Their dispassionate approach and methods may be likened to those of the engineering professions which stem from the physical sciences." ... [CRITICISED ] ... The threat of engineered consent in democracy has been expressed in a textbook on American government :

" Under modern conditions of political advertising and manipulation, it has become possible to talk of the engineering of consent by an elite of experts and professional politicians. Consent that is thus engineered is difficult to distinguish in any fundamental way from the consent that supports modern totalitarian governments. Were the manipulated voter to become the normal voter, the government he supports could hardly be said to rest on his consent in any traditional sense of that word. "


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing_Consent:_Changes_in_the_Labor_Process_under_Monopoly_Capitalism

http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/org_theory/Scott_articles/buraw_paper.html

(Essay by Keith Rollag for Soc 260 Class)

Making Out in Capitalism: Reflections on Burawoy's Manufacturing Consent

" ... Management "manufactures consent" using a variety of strategies. ... While Burawoy agrees with most traditional Marxist views, he disagrees with Marx and Braverman on the mechanisms of labor control by capitalism. Instead of viewing capitalistic control as despotic or "de-skilling", Burawoy observes a more hegemonic methodology of co-optation and subtle coercion. ... Based on his experience as a laborer in a piece-rate machine shop, he concludes that management really controls workers by giving labor the "illusion of choice" in a highly restrictive environment. Worker participation in this co-optation creates consent and minimizes the potential of class consciousness and labor-management conflict while maximizing productivity. ... [ COMMENT BY KEITH ROLLAG IN THIS ESSAY ABOUT BUROWAY - USING IDEAS WHICH I SHARE ] ... Every level in an organization extracts "unpaid value" from those resources below by nurturing a game-based reward system. Workers and managers derive satisfaction from discovering the strategies needed to master the game and thus gain respect and prestige among peers. "Making out" is more explicit at lower levels and more implicit at higher levels. Individuals strive to achieve a work status level (i.e, game level) that is sufficiently challenging and rewarding. If the game is too easy workers become bored. If the game is too difficult workers become discouraged and unproductive. ... "


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Carey

Alexander Edward Carey (1 December 1922 – 30 November 1987)[1] was an Australian writer and social psychologist. ... Journalist John Pilger has called Carey "a second Orwell in his prophesies" ... According to Noam Chomsky, Carey pioneered the study of corporate propaganda ... Much of Carey's work in this area remained unpublished and was cut short by his death. In 1995, a collection of his essays (several of them previously unpublished) were published under the title, Taking the Risk Out of Democracy: Propaganda in the U.S. and Australia ... From 1958 until his death, he was a lecturer in psychology at the University of New South Wales. The main subjects of his lectures and research were industrial psychology, industrial relations, and the psychology of nationalism and propaganda. ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_S._Herman

Edward S. Herman (born April 7, 1925) is professor emeritus of finance at the Wharton School of Business of the University of Pennsylvania[1] and a media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy. He also teaches at Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. He is perhaps best known for developing the propaganda model of media criticism with Noam Chomsky. In 1967, Herman was among more than 500 writers and editors who signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse to pay the 10% Vietnam War Tax surcharge proposed by president Johnson. ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky ( born December 7, 1928 ) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes described as "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy, and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He is Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he has worked since 1955, and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism. ...

documentary - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHa6NflkW3Y

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing_Consent

Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (1988), by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, proposes that the mass communication media of the U.S. "are effective and powerful ideological institutions that carry out a system-supportive propaganda function, by reliance on market forces, internalized assumptions, and self-censorship, and without overt coercion", by means of the propaganda model of communication. The title derives from the phrase "the manufacture of consent," employed in the book Public Opinion (1922), by Walter Lippmann (1889–1974). ... Chomsky credits the origin of the book to the impetus of Alex Carey, the Australian social psychologist, to whom he and co-author E. S. Herman dedicated the book. Four years after publication, Manufacturing Consent: The political Economy of the Mass Media was adapted to the cinema as Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media (1992), a documentary presentation of the propaganda-model of communication, the politics of the mass-communications business, and a biography of Chomsky. [ SEE YOUTUBE LINK ]

documentary - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHa6NflkW3Y

Propaganda model of communication - Five filters of editorial bias :

1 : Size, Ownership, and Profit Orientation
2 : The Advertising License to Do Business
3 : Sourcing Mass Media News
4 : Flak and the Enforcers
5 : Anti-Communism*

* This was included as a filter in the original 1988 edition of the book, but Chomsky argues that since the end of the Cold War (1945–91), anti-communism was replaced by the "War on Terror", as the major social control mechanism.

Government and news media
Editorial distortion is aggravated by the news media’s dependence upon private and governmental news sources. If a given newspaper, television station, magazine, etc., incurs disfavor from the sources, it is subtly excluded from access to information. Consequently, it loses readers or viewers, and ultimately, advertisers. To minimize such financial danger, news media businesses editorially distort their reporting to favor government and corporate policies in order to stay in business ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_model

The propaganda model is a conceptual model in political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky to explain how propaganda and systemic biases function in mass media. The model seeks to explain how populations are manipulated and how consent for economic, social and political policies is "manufactured" in the public mind due to this propaganda. The theory posits that the way in which news is structured (e.g. through advertising, concentration of media ownership, government sourcing) creates an inherent conflict of interest which acts as propaganda for undemocratic forces. ...

... First presented in their 1988 book Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, the propaganda model views private media as businesses interested in the sale of a product—readers and audiences—to other businesses (advertisers) rather than that of quality news to the public. Describing the media's "societal purpose", Chomsky writes, "... the study of institutions and how they function must be scrupulously ignored, apart from fringe elements or a relatively obscure scholarly literature".[1] The theory postulates five general classes of "filters" that determine the type of news that is presented in news media. These five classes are: Ownership of the medium, Medium's funding sources, Sourcing, Flak, Anti-communism and fear ideology. ...

... Since the publication of Manufacturing Consent, Herman and Chomsky have adopted the theory and have given it a prominent role in their writings, lectures and theoretical frameworks. Chomsky has made extensive use of its explanative power to lend support to his interpretations of mainstream media attitudes towards a wide array of events, including the following : Gulf War (1990), the media's failure to report on Saddam's peace offers. ... Iraq invasion (2003), the media's failure to report on the legality of the war despite overwhelming public opinion in favor of only invading Iraq with UN authorization. According to the liberal watchdog group Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting, there was a disproportionate focus on pro-war sources while total anti-war sources only made up 10% of the media (with only 3% of US sources being anti-war). ... Global warming, the media gives near equal balance to people who deny climate change despite only "about one percent" of climate scientists taking this view. Chomsky commented that there are "three sides" on climate change (deniers, those who follow the scientific consensus, and people who think that the consensus underestimates the threat from global warming), but in framing the debate the media usually ignore people who say that the scientific consensus is unduly optimistic. ...

[ THOSE ARE QUITE EXTENSIVE PAGES WITH A NUMBER OF WEBLINKS ]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politico-media_complex

The politico-media complex (PMC, also referred to as the political-media complex) is a name that has been given to the close, systematized, symbiotic-like network of relationships between a state's political and ruling classes, its media industry, and any interactions with or dependencies upon interest groups with other domains and agencies, such as law (and its enforcement through the police) and, particularly, corporations - especially the multinationals. The term PMC is often used to name, derogatively, the collusion between governments or individual politicians and the media industry in an attempt to manipulate rather than inform the people ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politico-media_complex#Global_print_media

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers" ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politico-media_complex#Cultural_politics

Ulf Hedetoft has observed, "In the real world of politics and influence, certain nationalisms, cultures, ideas and interpretations are more transnationally powerful, assertive and successful than others. Where the less influential ones are not necessarily less self-congratulatory, they are certainly more inward-looking and always carry the label of national specificity." He goes on, however, to say that these more transnationally powerful films actually become de-nationalized as a result of its "national-cultural currency" more widely and easily dispersed, mixing with other cultures, becoming either a "positive admixture" to other countries' cultures and identities or a "model for emulation." He compares national cinema that undergoes such processes to English becoming a global lingua franca: the cultural sharing that results is hegemonic and the globalizing process is non-symmetrical. ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politico-media_complex#Propaganda

World War II propaganda persisted 30 years after Dachau and Auschwitz such as in the thinly disguised fascist Italian film The Night Porter (1974). The film sought to legitimize the Nazis' genocide, while glorifying sadism, brutality, and machismo. What amazes Henry Giroux, as he explains in "Breaking into the Movies," is that such blatant ideological messages were ignored by critics and the general public. That society may be incapable of testing the present against the past has implications for post-industrial oppression in the West and the strategies for resisting it. Despite the writings of Antonio Gramsci, Herbert Marcuse, and Paulo Freire, the majority of Americans (at least) do not recognize how important class hegemony, or cultural domination, is in nations where populations are kept obedient to governments through ideological means. He argues, "We are not only victims in the political and material sense, but are also tied emotionally and intellectually to the prevailing ruling-class norms and values." ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politico-media_complex#The_depoliticizing_effect_of_cinema

While films can be overtly political they can also depoliticize and oversimplify what is inherently complex, such as class struggle. Film, as it contributes to mass culture, has been criticized for reducing the concept of class to stereotypes and predictable formulas that promote superficial understandings of ideology. Such misrepresentation and the ignorance that it promotes and perpetuates has been said to make audiences and citizens vulnerable to manipulative tactics of politicians in a reality that is complex. One of the exceptions to oversimplification and ideological flattening in cinema has been said to be Norma Rae (1979), a film that presents a truer representation than is conventional of the complexities and politics of the working-class struggle and culture at the level of everyday life.

[ TIME FOR BED : A RICH SUBJECT ... I NEED TO WRITE SOMETHING MYSELF ]
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dai



Joined: 09 Feb 2007
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 24, 2016 9:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Normally my musical groove is a deep rut through old tracks which I like but this group " Kontrust " were thrown up by Youtube - curiously entertaming videos ...

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=mIegk9Ukx4k

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=zf--ISBmLno

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=b33JAIMISNY

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=QwhPOlIuSXM

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=NXUWV87zxDc

etc not as irrelevant as you might suppose ...
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