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dai



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PostPosted: Tue Sep 18, 2007 3:29 pm    Post subject: Rhaglenni Radio 4 programmes Reply with quote

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/youandyours/listenagain/tuesday.shtml

" You and yours " 18 / 09 / 07 featured a phone in for most of the show together with emails sent in to criticise Judge Dredd - oops ! - Michael Wills, the new Minister For Justice - about his various proposals like " citizens' juries " and " consultations " - it is well worth listening to, not for what he was saying but for what the callers were saying...if you ever thought that we were a tiny minority this programme will give you renewed faith and hope to go on : there is a lot of republican feeling out there, even if people are shy of that word to identify themselves.
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dai



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PostPosted: Sat Sep 29, 2007 10:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Saturday Live 29 / 09 / 07

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/saturdaylive/saturdaylive.shtml

Albert Beale was one of the guests on this morning's Saturday live, he was one of those prosecuted in the 1970's for Conspiracy, for handing out leaflets to soldiers going to Northern Ireland. He was in the first part of the programme and its nice to hear somebody giving out such a consistantly reasoned political argument - pity such voices were not being consistantly aired before Iraq !

Profile 29 / 09 / 07 - 7pm

Is about the Burma regime's junta.
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dai



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PostPosted: Thu Oct 11, 2007 4:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime.shtml

" In Our Time " today discussed the idea of the divine right of kings, which ofcourse I don't believe in, but it ended up exploring the arguments of the 17c conservative republicans whopleaded the importance of the monarchy constitutionally. Lots of good politicalprogrammes precede this tonight aswell.
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 08, 2008 3:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20080207.shtml

" In Our Time " discussing the Social Contract - really worthwhile discussion of an essential republican idea and barely no mention of "R-"
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 22, 2009 11:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/b00m535w

This is an iplayer link to this morning's 'Beyond Westminster' which I hope to listen to again later today because it was very good for a change. It is about all of the different ideas for dealing with the democratic defecit that so many people sense in the U.K. Some of the sorts of thinking presented provoke thought.
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 09, 2010 1:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You and Yours today 08 / 03 / 10 http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/b006qps9/console had a lot of callers offering their ideas as to how to put right the political system - they probably do not think of themselves as republicans but they are putting forward some very familiar arguments.
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PostPosted: Tue May 18, 2010 9:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00scjdz

Michael Portillo's 'Democracy on Trial' is proving to be very a informative though brief account of political ideas that informed the Enlightenment. The bugger of it is that it is only available to listen to for a week after it is broadcast, and today's episode is presumeably only available after its second broadcast at 21.30pm so I can't even attempt to transcibe it here. Today's episode 2 discusses how the early republicans in America and France wrangled over whether to be total democracies.
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dai



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PostPosted: Tue Oct 25, 2011 6:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

( from email about a question that I pitched at the programme being taken up )

" Making History " Radio 4 - 3pm 25/10/11

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0168131

Ant was asking me about how the " Making History " thing went and so I prepared him a link, my question appears about twenty minutes into the programme.

( God I hate the sound of my voice. How did I end up sounding this way ? )

Not really very impressed with the answers, not detached academic viewpoints it seems to me.

Neither academic seemed to know about the actual Republican movement.

At least anybody can read the PhD thesis that I was referring to - http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertations/678/ - [ Republicanism in Victorian Britain - PhD by Michael Pearson Smith ]

The question put was : " I have been reading a 1979 PhD thesis on-line, Republicanism in Victorian Britain by Michael Pearson Smith. I am curious as to why Republicanism in Britain, especially England, seems to have swiftly peaked in 1872 and then equally swiftly declined. [ - middle edited out - " What were the factors involved in this ? What were its legacy ? " - ] This thesis is was quite substantial but I haven't come across anything equivilent to it online and I wonder what else there is to find out about this subject ? "

The man who first answered was Dr Rohan McWilliam - http://www.anglia.ac.uk/ruskin/en/home/faculties/alss/deps/hss/staff0/r-mcwilliam.html - and he was an enthusiast but treated the subject in a sentimental way, apparently not knowing that I was referring to the more tangible appearance of Republican Clubs with political programmes far more advanced than the Chartists had ever had e.g. nationalisation of land.

The man who second answered was Dr Alex Windscheffel - http://pure.rhul.ac.uk/portal/en/persons/alex-windscheffel_4ff1a8dd-e29e-4f72-a39d-9cd4a4a69b39.html - and described Republicanism as a rather tame affair that was no threat, yet it led to Disraeli and Gladstone being concerned, questions being asked in parliament and secret agents being sent out to infiltrate the new republican organisations.

Of course, I disagreed with them, having read the thesis ...

Both of these speakers emphasised 19c public disaffection with the monarchy but this already pre-existed 1872 and it persisted afterwards, whereas the events that immediately preceded 1872 were the Polish Insurrection of 1864, the American Civil War 1861-65, and the Franco-Prussian War and Paris Commune 1870-71. What was happening immediately prior to 1872 in the UK was an economic convulsion that had thrown thousands onto the streets of the major cities begging, the ineffectual second Reform Act of 1867, and the founding of the International Workingmen's Association in 1869. It was about 1860's that in England the balance tipped over into urban living and dependence on waged labour, hence the central concerns of this Republican movement were economic and less about the monarchy. Apparently it can be counted as the transitional stage between Chartism and Socialism politically, as Marxist thought began to take hold of the imagination of radicals after the founding of the International in 1869, and its political legacy lives on in all of the political parties represented in Westminster - Conservative, Labour, Liberal-Democrat, Plaid Cymru, Scottish Nationalists all share in it.

As to whether this was trivial compared to the Commwealth 1649-60, the obvious point is that Cromwell's political establishment was not as republic even if he called it so ( and even if these Victorian republicans celebrated its memory ). There were a few advocates of republicanism in the 17c but those few who did more than speculate about it on paper were treated as enemies by both sides in the English Civil War. In 1872, there was a mass movement of probably around ten thousand active advocates of republicanism : not a hot-headed rabble conspiring against a hated institution , but a publically conducted intellectually based argument critical of the whole political system. It seems to have collapsed as a movement because of factional in-fighting between an older conception of Republicanism and the emerging Marxist ideology, and also more over whether to associate with the Fenians whilst arguing for Home Rule. Perhaps one legacy of these factional splits in the English Republican movement may be regarded as the split in Ireland.

But still, I've read very little on the subject. So far...
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PostPosted: Fri May 15, 2015 9:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05tq1s3

A Point of View - Presidents as Monarchs - David Cannadine

David Cannadine says when Barack Obama's critics accuse him of acting like a king they're forgetting the origins of the office of President.
"From the outset, the American presidency was vested with what might be termed monarchical authority, which meant that it really was a form of elective kingship."

I'm going to listen to this short ten minute programme again because it was informative and amusing : it concludes with that old idea that the United States of America is a Kingdom which elects its head of state every four years whereas The United Kingdom is a Republic which has an hereditary President ... bollocks of course - but this does point back to the middle of the 18c when the Americans in rebellion invoked what to the British at the time was a perfectly respectable political argument : Republicanism. It was not even banned in Britain after the founding of the United States of America because it was a commonplace argument which was used to explain and justify The United Kingdom - until the Napoleonic Wars when it was denounced as subversive by William Pitt and others who incited " Church and King " mobs to attack those who advocated Republicanism as supposedly being potential traitors.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priestley_Riots

Over the next fifty years Republicanism was driven out of public political discourse and is still portrayed as a criminal conspiracy against The United Kingdom - yet many ideas drawn from Republican theory were built into this political system throughout the 18c and the 19c and 20c but increasingly these ideas were ripped from their context or even worse merely mimicked e.g. the supporters of The United Kingdom claim that it is founded upon ' The Rule of Law ' yet this implies a universal standard of justice applicable to all but in fact a whole swathe of institutions within The United Kingdom are either exempted from various laws or held to be privileged and not accountable to anybody in court rooms e.g. The Houses of Parliament. The lack of The Rule of Law in The United Kingdom suits the willfulness of Democrats because they can pass laws in an arbitrary and therefore inconsistent way e.g. The United Kingdom 2015 General Election was conducted upon the basis of a thoroughly disordered Electoral Register ( for which there was no legal sanction available to hold The Demockerats in Westminster accountable ) and tens of millions of names were obtained - stolen - from various databases to contrive to repair the failing Electoral Register because The People were disaffected and not signing up to it ( thus the Demockerats violated the Democratic principle of Government by Consent - the Demockerats in The United Kingdom merely mimic the norms of Democracy upheld elsewhere ) and millions of names were not obtained and neither The Demockerats in Westminster nor their Electoral Registration Officers on their behalf can be held accountable for this not being done.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individual_Electoral_Registration

But the Demockerats in Westminster have passed a law - The Electoral Registration and Administration Act 2013 - to harass, intimidate, prosecute, fine, distrain and imprison those who conscientiously object to this fiasco and either refuse to enter our names on the Electoral Register or try to remove them ( as I have done.) So get your head around that reasoning : The Demockerats in Westminster violate the norms of Democracy and supposedly in the defence of Democracy persecute those who resolutely uphold those norms ... but this in itself is a good reason to suspect that Democracy is not what the Demockerats claim it claim to be : compare the laws regulating the ballots made by others subjected to ' The Misrule of Law ' - if they conducted their ballots in the way that The Demockerats in Westminster conducted The United Kingdom 2015 General Election, individually and collectively trade unionists would be prosecuted ... fined and imprisoned ... The Demockerats in Westminster could even use the same principles of the laws which they make for many others to be subject to but do not abide by themselves to suppress organisations which they do not like - trade unions, charities, companies, political campaigns ... political parties.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law

Welcome to the less than wonderfully warped world of Demockery in The United Kingdom : this is what happens when Republicanism is excluded from the public political discourse - we have ended up with not merely a dysfunctional political system but as a consequence an incoherent and self-contradictory legal system which is dysfunctional to such a degree that not only is it entirely unavailable for poorer people - and indeed also for richer people - but even immensely rich corporations can not obtain redress from The Demockerats in United Kingdom : they have simply evoted themselves to be unaccountable to " The Rule of Law " by virtue of the fact that they make the laws ... but multiple standards embodied in contradictoary laws in the same legal system is " The Law of Mis-Rule " ... but - whilst my declaring The United Kingdom 2015 General Election to be null and void is obviously thus a futile gesture because the matter can not be pursued legally - that still does not make the obvious fact which I have declared untrue : it is our Common Sense which declares that any ballot is invalid if it is coerced.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Sense_%28pamphlet%29

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I see that this should really be posted on the UK General Election thread - http://repwblic.informe.com/viewtopic.php?t=1159&start=20

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What laws exist whose principles they have argued to impose upon others but which The Democrats of The United Kingdom do not apply to themselves ?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_of_Fundamental_Rights_of_the_European_Union

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law. It was drafted by the European Convention and solemnly proclaimed on 7 December 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission. However, its then legal status was uncertain and it did not have full legal effect until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_of_Fundamental_Rights_of_the_European_Union#The_British_and_Polish_protocol

In the negotiations leading up to the signing to the Lisbon Treaty, Poland and the United Kingdom secured a protocol to the treaty relating to the application of the Charter of the Fundamental Rights in their respective countries. ... In NS v Home Secretary, the European Court of Justice ruled that Article 1(1) of Protocol "explains Article 51 of the Charter with regard to the scope thereof and does not intend to exempt the Republic of Poland or the United Kingdom from the obligation to comply with the provisions of the Charter or to prevent a court of one of those Member States from ensuring compliance with those provisions."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_of_Fundamental_Rights_of_the_European_Union#The_text

The Charter contains some 54 articles divided into seven titles. The first six titles deal with substantive rights under the headings: dignity, freedoms, equality, solidarity, citizens' rights and justice, while the last title deals with the interpretation and application of the Charter. Much of Charter is based on the European Convention on Human Rights ( ECHR ), European Social Charter, the case-law of the European Court of Justice and pre-existing provisions of European Union law. ...

... The second title ( Freedoms ) covers liberty, personal integrity, privacy, protection of personal data, marriage, thought, religion, expression, assembly, education, work, property and asylum. ... The fifth title ( Citizen's Rights ) covers the rights of the EU citizens such as the right to vote in election to the European Parliament and to move freely within the EU. It also includes several administrative rights such as a right to good administration, to access documents and to petition the European Parliament. ...

https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Charter_of_Fundamental_Rights_of_the_European_Union

Article 8 – Protection of personal data

1. Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her.

2. Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by law. Everyone has the right of access to data which has been collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it rectified.

3. Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an independent authority.

Article 10 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.


2. The right to conscientious objection is recognised, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of this right.

Article 12 – Freedom of assembly and of association

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association at all levels, in particular in political, trade union and civic matters, which implies the right of everyone to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his or her interests.

2. Political parties at Union level contribute to expressing the political will of the citizens of the Union.

Article 13 – Freedom of the arts and sciences

The arts and scientific research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.


Article 21 – Non-discrimination

1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.


2. Within the scope of application of the Treaty establishing the European Community and of the Treaty on European Union, Treaties and without prejudice to the special provisions of those Treaties any of their specific provisions, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.

Article 44 – Right to petition

Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State has the right to petition the European Parliament.

Article 47 – Right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial

Everyone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article.

Everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal previously established by law. Everyone shall have the possibility of being advised, defended and represented.

Legal aid shall be made available to those who lack sufficient resources in so far as such aid is necessary to ensure effective access to justice.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Convention_on_Human_Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights ( ECHR ) ( formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms ) is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by the then newly formed Council of Europe, the convention entered into force on 3 September 1953. All Council of Europe member states are party to the Convention and new members are expected to ratify the convention at the earliest opportunity.

The Convention established the European Court of Human Rights ( ECtHR ). Any person who feels his or her rights have been violated under the Convention by a state party can take a case to the Court. Judgments finding violations are binding on the States concerned and they are obliged to execute them. The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe monitors the execution of judgements, particularly to ensure payment of the amounts awarded by the Court to the applicants in compensation for the damage they have sustained. The establishment of a Court to protect individuals from human rights violations is an innovative feature for an international convention on human rights, as it gives the individual an active role on the international arena ( traditionally, only states are considered actors in international law.) The European Convention is still the only international human rights agreement providing such a high degree of individual protection. State parties can also take cases against other state parties to the Court, although this power is rarely used. ... The Convention is drafted in broad terms, in a similar (albeit more modern) manner to the English Bill of Rights, the American Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man or the first part of the German Basic law. Statements of principle are, from a legal point of view, not determinative and require extensive interpretation by courts to bring out meaning in particular factual situations. ...

Article 4 – Prohibition of slavery and forced labour

1. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. 2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour. 3. For the purpose of this article the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:

a. any work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention imposed according to the provisions of Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from such detention;
b. any service of a military character or, in case of conscientious objectors in countries where they are recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military service;
c. any service exacted in case of an emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
d. any work or service which forms part of normal civic obligations.

Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

2. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 10 – Freedom of expression

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.

2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.

Article 11 – Freedom of assembly and association [ THE FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION IS BY DEFINITION ALSO THE RIGHT TO NOT ASSOCIATE ]

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

2. No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces, of the police or of the administration of the State.

Article 14 - Prohibition of discrimination

The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.

Article 17 - Prohibition of abuse of rights

Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the Convention.

Article 18 - Limitation on use of restrictions on rights

The restrictions permitted under this Convention to the said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed.


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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Covenant_on_Civil_and_Political_Rights#Parties_to_the_covenant

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976. It commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. ... [ The United Kingdom signed this in 1968 but only ratified it in 1976 ] ... The ICCPR is part of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( ICESCR ) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR )

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx

PART II

Article 2

1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

2. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant.

3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:

(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.

Article 8

1. No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall be prohibited.

2. No one shall be held in servitude.

3.

(a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour;

(b) Paragraph 3 (a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries where imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court;

(c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:

(i) Any work or service, not referred to in subparagraph (b), normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court, or of a person during conditional release from such detention;

(ii) Any service of a military character and, in countries where conscientious objection is recognized, any national service required by law of conscientious objectors;

(iii) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;

(iv) Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations. [ BUT IT IS NOT COMPULSORY TO VOTE - YET : THEY ARE PLANNING IT ! ]

Article 16

Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 17

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 18

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.

2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

4. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.

Article 19

1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.

2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.

3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;

(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.

Article 20

1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.

2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

Article 21

The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 22

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this right.

3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International Labour Organisation Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.

Article 25

Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:

(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives;

(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors;

(c) To have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.

Article 26

All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
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