Joined: 09 Feb 2007
|Posted: Thu Sep 22, 2016 3:29 am Post subject: The Pharmacopia of The Republican Drama ?
|Ah - the tragedy and comedy of being woken by the BBC World Service before 04.00 am ... [ text ]
You like Eastenders but do not like being grateful & I am opposite ? = Sophie Duncan Callevi Research Centre says watching Tragedies improves our stress resistance & Gratitude improves our mental health = http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/9/160288 = http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p047sf2c
ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE
Emotional arousal when watching drama increases pain threshold and social bonding
R. I. M. Dunbar, Ben Teasdale, Jackie Thompson, Felix Budelmann, Sophie Duncan, Evert van Emde Boas, Laurie Maguire - Published 21 September 2016
Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding.
Storytelling forms a major component of evening conversations around the campfire in hunter–gatherer societies . One important function is that it enables us to pass on, in the form of origin stories or a corpus of commonly held folktales and folk knowledge, the cultural ideologies that create a sense of community. Shared knowledge forms part of the mechanism that binds friends [2–5] as well as communities [6,7]. ... As important as these cognitive aspects of storytelling may be for community bonding, they do not explain why we are willing to return again and again to be entertained by storytellers and dramatists. ... While the cognitive component of social bonding is important in maintaining relationships through time in humans, primate social relationships and the bonding of social groups in humans, it is also underpinned by a psychopharmacological mechanism in what is effectively a dual mechanism process .
[ WELL I CAN NOT TAKE TOO MUCH : WHAT I HAVE IN MIND IS THAT MANY OF THE HISTORICALLY SUCCESSFUL REPUBLICANISMS HAVE BEEN PRESENTED AS STORIES WHICH HAVE GRIPPED THE IMAGINATIONS OF THEIR ADHERENTS - IT IS NOT JUST THAT NARRATIVE PRESENTATION ARE MORE EASILY MEMORABLE BUT THAT THEY ARE OFTEN EITHER BEAUTIFUL OR SUBLIME I.E. PEOPLE GET CAUGHT UP IN VISIONS OF THE FUTURE WORLD MADE GOOD OR THE EXISTING EVIL WORLD DESTROYED TO REMOVE THE HARMS BEING DONE ... IN OTHER WORDS THE ASPIRATION OF REPUBLICANS TO CREATE AN OBJECTIVE POLITICS IN WHICH DECISIONS ARE BOTH RATIONAL AND REASONABLE CAN BE DOUBTED IF PEOPLE ARE ADDICTED TO THEIR IDEOLOGIES AND TURNING THE PUBLIC DISCOURSE INTO A COMPULSIVE PSYCHODRAMA DRIVEN BY PLOT LINES RE-ENACTED WITH THE PLAYERS EACH READING FROM THEIR SCRIPTS AND PITCHING THEIR SOLILOQUIES TO THEIR RESPECTIVE AUDIENCES ... WHO ARE FEASTING ON POPCORN SWILLED DOWN WITH FIZZING ENDORPHINS AND WILLINGLY SITTING IN THE DARK IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO IGNORE REALITY.]
( If you like psychology the paper demonstrates what a Republican political analysis ought to look like i.e. how do we assess plausible political arguments by turning them into experiments which can then be tested mathematically by " operationalisation " ? )
We tested the explicit hypothesis that watching an emotionally arousing film increases the sense of belonging to a group, and that this effect is likely to be mediated by the endorphin system. Our results confirm that both pain threshold and sense of bondedness to the group increase after watching an emotionally arousing film, but not after watching films that have no emotional content. ... ... the mean change in pain threshold for those who exhibited a positive change was 20.8 ± 21.3 s (equivalent to an increase of 25% over the mean baseline pre-film value of approx. 79 s), compared to a decrease of −18.5 ± 15.6 s for those exhibiting a negative change. A k-means cluster analysis of change in pain threshold suggests an optimal division into three clusters (figure 7) that, respectively, represent those who do not respond at all to the film (Δpain < −5 s), those who respond somewhat (−5 > Δpain < 35 s) and a small subset who respond very strongly (Δpain > 35 s) (with the two sexes evenly split across the three categories: χ2 = 3.62, d.f. = 2, p = 0.623). (All values of k ≤ 6 tested identify Δpain ≈ 0 as a major division in the data.) ... ... Our focus here has been on one particular aspect of drama. It is not our intention to suggest that all of dramatic fiction can now be reduced to one simple neurochemical. Both the construction of fiction and our enjoyment of it involves many other aspects of human psychology, as well as the more explicitly literary explanatory theories that have emerged within literature studies and linguistics in terms of the ways plots are constructed and language is used. ... ... ∆ ?
In mathematics, the Laplace operator or Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function on Euclidean space. It is usually denoted by the symbols ∇·∇, ∇2, or ∆.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Laplacian matrix ... is a matrix representation of a graph. The Laplacian matrix can be used to find many useful properties of graph. ...
... This distribution is often referred to as Laplace's first law of errors. He published it in 1774 when he noted that the frequency of an error could be expressed as an exponential function of its magnitude once its sign was disregarded ...
Political philosophy [ of Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace ]
In the second edition ( 1814 ) of the Essai philosophique, Laplace added some revealing comments on politics and governance. Since it is, he says, "the practice of the eternal principles of reason, justice and humanity that produce and preserve societies, there is a great advantage to adhere to these principles, and a great inadvisability to deviate from them". Noting "the depths of misery into which peoples have been cast" when ambitious leaders disregard these principles, Laplace makes a veiled criticism of Napoleon's conduct: "Every time a great power intoxicated by the love of conquest aspires to universal domination, the sense of liberty among the unjustly threatened nations breeds a coalition to which it always succumbs." Laplace argues that "in the midst of the multiple causes that direct and restrain various states, natural limits" operate, within which it is "important for the stability as well as the prosperity of empires to remain". States that transgress these limits cannot avoid being "reverted" to them, "just as is the case when the waters of the seas whose floor has been lifted by violent tempests sink back to their level by the action of gravity".
About the political upheavals he had witnessed, Laplace formulated a set of principles derived from physics to favor evolutionary over revolutionary change:
Let us apply to the political and moral sciences the method founded upon observation and calculation, which has served us so well in the natural sciences. Let us not offer fruitless and often injurious resistance to the inevitable benefits derived from the progress of enlightenment; but let us change our institutions and the usages that we have for a long time adopted only with extreme caution. We know from past experience the drawbacks they can cause, but we are unaware of the extent of ills that change may produce. In the face of this ignorance, the theory of probability instructs us to avoid all change, especially to avoid sudden changes which in the moral as well as the physical world never occur without a considerable loss of vital force.
In these lines, Laplace expressed the views he had arrived at after experiencing the Revolution and the Empire. He believed that the stability of nature, as revealed through scientific findings, provided the model that best helped to preserve the human species. "Such views," Hahn comments, "were also of a piece with his steadfast character."
[ PIERRE-SIMON LAPLACE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A REPUBLICAN CONSERVATIVE ]